Anyang forging Press Machinery Since 1956
Classification of forging processes
- Hammer or drop forging
- Press forging
- Open-die forging
- Closed-die forging
• This chapter provides fundamental of metal working process for forging
in order to understand mathematical approaches used in the calculation
of applied forging loads required to cause plastic deformation to give the
• Classification of metal forging methods is also provided with
descriptions of defects observed from the forging processes.
• The solutions to tackle such defects will also be addressed.
Forging is the working of metal into a useful
shape by hammering or pressing.
• The oldest of the metalworking arts (primitive
• Replacement of machinery occurred during
early the Industrial revolution. • Forging machines are now capable of making
parts ranging in size of a bolt to a turbine
rotor. • Most forging operations are carried out hot,
although certain metals may be cold-forged.
Edging is used to shape
the ends of the bars and to
gather metal. The metal
flow is confined in the
horizontal direction but it is
free to flow laterally to fill
the die. www.jsc-pfm.com
Drawing is used to reduce the cross-sectional area of
the workpiece with concurrent increase in length.
Piercing and punching are used to produce holes in
Fullering is used to reduce the cross-sectional area
of a portion of the stock. The metal flow is outward
and away from the centre of the fuller.
i.e., forging of connecting rod for an internalcombustion engine.